Quel espace pour l’enseignant dans une classe d’apprentissage actif? (3/3)

Enfin, j’ai voulu savoir où en était la recherche dans le domaine.  J’ai donc consulté le fascicule 7 Things You Should Know About… Research on Active Learning Classrooms de l’EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. Voici quelques passages de cette page recto-verso qui m’ont marqué:

  • « …[N]o matter how flexible and feature-filled an active learning class might be, making the space work for instructors depends on robust course design and the availability of technical support… »
  • « ALCs [Active Learning Classrooms] are designed to help students work together and to enable faculty to move freely around the room as guides for learning rather than as lecturers. »
  • « …[S]tudies investigate how faculty members who teach in these classrooms believe the experience changes
    their pedagogy and effectiveness in nurturing learning. Another branch of the research looks at the physical architecture of classrooms, studying different models for such spaces and, often, comparing them to traditional classrooms. »
  • « Fundamentally, higher education needs to know why active learning works, how it works best, and how these methods can be adopted more widely. We need to know more about the impact of ALCs on pedagogy, learning, and student success and retention — whether, for example, students in ALCs learn
    differently or better or faster than their peers in more traditional classrooms and what pedagogical practices best support active learning. » (emphase dans le texte original)

Le fascicule confirme que les universités américaines où le plus de recherche s’est fait sur l’impact de telles salles sont North Carolina State University, le MIT et l’Université du Minnesota.  On pointe vers la page web de McGill dont nous avons déjà parlé, ainsi que vers le projet SCALE-UP de North Carolina.

Je suis parvenu à ce diaporama PowerPoint de Baepler et Walker, chercheurs de la University of Minnesota.  On présente y les relations que les étudiants arrivent à tisser avec leurs enseignants et leurs pairs dans le contexte social de la classe d’apprentissage actif (CLAAC) comme un facteur positif.  430 étudiants ont été sondés sur leur facilité à travailler en équipe, les liens qu’ils développent avec leurs collègues et avec leurs enseignants, leur capacité à mieux comprendre le point de vue d’une autre personne et leur confort à travailler avec quelqu’un d’une autre culture.  Dans tous les cas, la différence entre ceux qui avaient vécu les activités pédagogiques dans des classes traditionnelles et ceux qui les avaient vécu dans les CLAAC était significative (p < .01).  Comme l’exprime un enseignant:

« The main thing the room does — it changes the relationship that faculty have with students, and the relationship that students have with one another.“  – an ALC faculty member, 2007

En plus des relations plus développées entre enseignants et étudiants, les auteurs du diaporama font état d’un « facteur mystère » d’amélioration à partir de commentaires étudiants du type…

  • « It feels safe to volunteer an answer in this class, even if it’s wrong.« 
  • « I can choose how I learn the material for this course. »
  • « In this class, I control how much I learn. »

Ils se risquent à y percevoir l’auto-efficacité ou sentiment d’efficacité personnelle (Self-Efficacy) décrite par Bandura.

“Perceived self-efficacy refers to beliefs in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments.”  – Bandura, A. (1994). Self‐efficacy.  John Wiley & Sons, Inc

Les mêmes auteurs (Paul Michel BaeplerJ. D. Walker) ont commis un livre avec d’autres collègues en 2016: A Guide to Teaching in the Active Learning ClassroomHistory, Research, and Practice.  En voici la description:

Couverture
While Active Learning Classrooms, or ALCs, offer rich new environments for learning, they present many new challenges to faculty because, among other things, they eliminate the room’s central focal point and disrupt the conventional seating plan to which faculty and students have become accustomed.

The importance of learning how to use these classrooms well and to capitalize on their special features is paramount. The potential they represent can be realized only when they facilitate improved learning outcomes and engage students in the learning process in a manner different from traditional classrooms and lecture halls.This book provides an introduction to ALCs, briefly covering their history and then synthesizing the research on these spaces to provide faculty with empirically based, practical guidance on how to use these unfamiliar spaces effectively.

This book is intended for faculty preparing to teach in or already working in this new classroom environment; for administrators planning to create ALCs or experimenting with provisionally designed rooms; and for faculty developers helping teachers transition to using these new spaces.
Ce livre tente de répondre aux questions suivantes:
  • Comment les enseignants peuvent-ils atténuer l’absence apparente d’un point d’intérêt central dans l’espace ? (How can instructors mitigate the apparent lack of a central focal point in the space?)
  • Quels types d’activités d’apprentissage fonctionnent bien dans les CLAAC et prennent avantage des dispositifs offerts par ces espaces ? (What types of learning activities work well in the ALCs and take advantage of the affordances of the room?)
  • Comment les enseignantes et enseignants peuvent-ils aborder les problématiques habituelles de gestion de classe dans ces espaces si peu familiers ? (How can teachers address familiar classroom-management challenges in these unfamiliar spaces?)
  • Si l’évaluation et la rétroaction rapides sont essentielles en apprentissage actif, comment fonctionnent-elles dans une pièce remplie de tables circulaires sans point central? (If assessment and rapid feedback are critical in active learning, how do they work in a room filled with circular tables and no central focus point?)
  • Comment les enseignants peuvent-ils équilibrer les spécificités du travail en petits groupes avec les besoins de l’ensemble de la classe ? (How do instructors balance group learning with the needs of the larger class?)
  • Comment les étudiants peuvent-ils s’autoréguler alors que la plupart d’entre eux tourneront nécessairement le dos à l’enseignant ? (How can students be held accountable when many will necessarily have their backs facing the instructor?)
  • Comment les enseignants peuvent-ils évaluer l’efficacité de leur enseignement dans ces espaces ? (How can instructors evaluate the effectiveness of their teaching in these spaces?)

Sa table des matières:

  • Preface
  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1 – History of ALCs and the early research
  • Chapter 2 – What we currently know about active learning classrooms
  • Chapter 3 – Social Context
  • Chapter 4 – Common challenges and solutions
  • Chapter 5 –Assignments and Activities
  • Chapter 6 – Managing student groups
  • Chapter 7 – Assessments and Feedback
  • Chapter 8 – Supporting All Students
  • Chapter 9- Supporting Instructors
  • Chapter 10 – Designing learning spaces research

Quelques commentaires à propos du livre:

« The book advocates a particular physical organization of the classroom. This is not up to the individual professors, but to the institutions in which they work. Even if one does not have the particular physical layout advocated in this book, there are a number of helpful tips for professors who seek to more actively engage their students. With chapters titled, ‘Assignments and Activities,’ ‘Managing Student Groups,’ and ‘Assessment and Feedback,’ it is easy to find practical suggestions on how to make the classroom less didactic and more engaged. Each chapter has helpful and clear subheadings that make it easy to scan for the topic that one needs. The examples in the book range from the sciences through to the humanities, helping a humanities professor get ideas on means of implementing the method in their own classroom. » (Reflective Teaching (Wabash Center) 2016-12-01)

« This book delivers exactly what is promised by the title. It is full of practical advice but also includes pointers to the research those teaching methods are based upon. There are sample learning materials and help with assessing students and supporting faculty. One book collects everything you need to get started teaching in one of these state-of-the-art spaces and presents it in a clear, organized fashion. Highly recommended! » (Robert J. Beichner, Alumni Distinguished Professor of Physics 2016-01-01)

“If you are realizing the need for a new kind of learning space on your campus, or if you have new learning spaces but are unsure how to use them well or want to know how well you are using them, you could ask for no better guide than this one.” (Bradley A. Cohen 2015-10-01)

Sources:

Baepler, Paul et al., « A Guide to Teaching in the Active Learning Classroom: History, Research, and Practice » (fiche du livre), Amazon, janvier 2016

Baepler, Paul, « New Book » (page Web), Minnesota University, 31 juillet 2015

Baepler, Paul et J.D. Walker, « Active Learning Classrooms and Social Context: Changing Relationships to Improve Learning » (présentation PowerPoint), Center for Educational Innovation, University of Minnesota, ELI Online Fall Focus Session, 28 octobre 2014

EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative, 7 Things You Should Know About… Research on Active Learning Classrooms, EDUCAUSE, septembre 2017

 

Des étudiants parlent de tricherie sans complaisance
Quel espace pour l'enseignant dans une classe d'apprentissage actif? (2/3)

Exprimez-vous !

*